chemical, technical characteristics of sandstone in general
bluestone, slate, onyx, engineered stone, manufacture stone, basalt,
pebbles, flagstone, lava
|Q 2279: I have been trying
to find information about SANDSTONE
because I would like
to use it in my house. Could you please send me as much information
as possible regarding: durability, insulation performance,
rate of expansion/contraction, ability to withstand weathering
(including ultra violet light & water), reaction when in contact
with other materials, ability to accept surface or other finishes,
susceptibility to damage/or insect attack, and the general advantages
and disadvantages of using sandstone. Thanking you, Wayne, July 23,
Wayne: you are asking for a lot of information, but have not identified
the particular sandstone you are planning on using. As with most types
of stone, sandstone comes in a wide range of hardness, compactness,
and grain cementing characteristics. Generally speaking, a soft, loosely
cemented sandstone will not weather worth a d!#%. Hard, dense tightly
cemented sandstone will hold up to the elements for a long long time.
needs to consider the bedding direction when the stone is laid. Stone
laid up with the bedding planes horizontal tend to weather better
than stone laid up with the bedding planes vertical, and if it is
laid with vertical bedding parallel to the face of the wall, an extreme
amount of spalling can be the result. The key here is to look at some
older buildings in your area that have the stone you are considering,
(assuming you are considering a local stone), and see how the stone
looks after years of exposure. If you are planning to import the stone,
then get some representative samples, and have your mason evaluate
it. Good Luck, JVC, USA
|Q 2249: Do you think
that very hard, dense calcareous sandstone
would cleave well to form building stone? Thanks .Smith, July 17,
Yes. Maurizio, USA
|Q 2244: Does anyone have empirical
information (or even an opinion) regarding the comparative heat resistance
of granite and "manufactured stone"
(such as zodiaq and Silestone)? Because I would wanted a very
light colored countertop, I was leaning towards manufactured stone.
I read, however, something that suggested that manufactured stone
shouldn't be used as a regular "landing pad" for stuff coming out
of the oven. Marianne, July 16.
|R1: Dear Marianne:
Whoever told you that was right. The approximately 6% of resin in
engineered stone (which is the bonding agent of the quartz chips)
could be damage by the
heat of a pot.
Now, about this thing that light colored "granite" is usually bad
as far as maintenance is concerned> True geological granite is either
white, or light gray, or pinkish, and its porosity is quite controllable
with a good quality sealer! are those color light enough for you?
Check the "Bianco Sardo" granite (a.k.a. "Luna Pearl"). It's a great
stone! Maurizio, USA
|A 1273: What is the
weight per cubic foot of sandstone?
What is its hardness? Thanks, Bob Dec 19.
|R2: Bob, There are too many variables to give one specific
answer. Weight per cubic foot depends on mineral content, grain size
and sorting (compactness), and the inter grain cementing material.
A loosely cemented (friable) calcareous sandstone may be on the order
of 130-140 lbs / cubic foot, while a well sorted, densely packed,
silicate cemented stone could be in the 180 lb range. Hardness of
the stone also depends on these same variables. Some can be scratched
with your fingernail, while others give diamond saw blades a good
workout. Again this depends on how well the little grains of sand
that make up the stone are cemented together, and by what. And finally,
as a carver, I need to consider the fact that the predominant material
in a sandstone is quartz sand, a silicate mineral with a hardness
of 7, while good tool steel has a hardness of about 5.6, which means
the sandstone is going to be hard on my favorite chisels, and as a
silicate, hard on my lungs. Hope I haven't confused you too much.
|R1: Sandstone typically weighs 120 -140 pounds per cubic foot
depending on the grade. The hardness is more difficult to evaluate
as it depends on what scale you want to use. Most people know of Moh's
scale, but it isn't much use on friable sandstones as it is difficult
to see a true scratch. There are other true hardness methods such
as Knoop and Brinell hardness that give an overall hardness but these
are very specialized. Measuring hardness by determining its abrasion
resistance is the most universal method via ASTM C1353 "Abrasion Resistance
of Dimension Stone Subjected to Foot Traffic". Using this method,
sandstone has a typical abrasive index from 2 to 18 with anything
less than 8 not being really suitable to for paving. Regards Jim,
1152: I want relevant information on the properties of sandstones
and their uses in construction please.
Roberts, USA, Oct. 23.
has been used as a building material for as long as man has been building.
However, the term sandstone encompasses a wide range of material, and,
as with limestones, all are not suited for construction purposes.
Factors involved include grain size, and how well cemented together those
grains of sand are. A poorly - cemented loose grained stone will
not hold up for very long, while some of the tightly packed, well cemented
stones, particularly those with a siliceous cement, are hard to work even
with diamond saw blades. The down side to sandstone is its porosity.
They tend to absorb a lot of water, and freeze thaw cycles can do a lot
of damage. Here in Texas, we are doing a lot of restoration on 1880-1890
vintage court houses. Some
are built of Texas Granite, and, for the most part, that stone is still
in good shape. Most were built of one of the several Texas limestones,
and many of these utilized a red sandstone for trim details and ornamentation.
Its this sandstone that has deteriorated and is needing replacement.
The limestones also have held up well. As a carver, I can tell you this.
Sandstones are often beautiful stones, but they are all hard on tools,
hard on the lungs, and not a lot of fun to work with. JVC, USA,
A 1005: I want to
know more about sandstone technical data, how and where
to use it. Advantages and disadvantages, and how to look after it. (Industrial
and domestic use.) Ewaldl, zimbabwe. June 11
Please help me with comparing sandstones and
limestones with regards to composition and structure. Craig,
March 20, USA,
R1: I will keep it simple for you (if you want it more complicated
let me know and I will oblige!). Limestone used to be alive. Sandstone
did not. Limestone it's a sedimentary rock that derives from the decomposition
of (formerly) living organism and, because of that is mostly made of Calcium
Carbonate. That classifies it as a calcite rock Sandstone is still a sedimentary
rock that was formed by layers of sand that, somehow, sunk deep into the
belly of Mother Earth. Once there, high temperature partially melted the
sand, and high pressure bonded the components together. Since it is of
an inorganic origination, it's a silicate rock. Is that good enough for
you? Ciao, Maurizio, USA,
My name is Kate, I am a student at UNSW college of fine arts. I am currently
I am wondering if you could send me, either my e-mail or the post, any
info you might have on the following specifications:
* material properties
* structural qualities
* construction methods
* uses and applications
* fittings and connections
* representation of material in technical documentation
* lists of suppliers and manufacturers
* history and use of application
* environmental issues
* health and safety
of course, I am not expecting you to go to too much trouble, any information
on any type of stone would be most appreciated, thanking you in advance
for your help. Kate, Australia, Feb 28,